According to Ryan and Deci (2000), motivation means to be moved by something. Self Determination theory (SDT) explains different levels of motivation, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation defines the urge of performing something because it is interesting inherently. Extrinsic motivation deals with the act of performing some work as it leads towards separable outcomes (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Ryan and Deci (2000) further opined that extrinsic motivation could be characterized as an impoverished and pale form of motivation that sharply differs with intrinsic motivation. However, SDT states that there are different forms of extrinsic motivation, few of them do, represents impoverished motivation and rest represents represent active form of motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2000). A student can accomplish extrinsically motivated actions either with resistance, resentment and disinterest or with a sense of willingness, which shows value of inner acceptance or importance of the task. The former is the classic example of extrinsic motivation where students feel externally propelled to perform the task and in later case, it is self-endorsed extrinsic goal and thus can be adopted with a feeling of volition. Analyzing different forms of extrinsic motivation and factors that fosters them is considered as an important issue pillar of educators who always cannot depend on intrinsic motivation to promote learning (Ryan & Deci, 2000).
Autonomous motivation centres on intrinsic motivation and few other types of extrinsic motivation under which people integrate a value of an activity into their self sense. During autonomous motivation, student gain self-advocacy and self-support via their own actions. On contrary, controlled motivation is composed of both interject and external regulation (Ryan & Deci, 2000).
According to the cognitive evaluation theory of SDT, student’s motivation can be diminished or facilitated during the phase of the student’s learning process or under the learning environment (Ryan & Deci, 2017). In terms of human behaviour, the nature of student’s motivation can be measured from low to high level of determination. The lowest level of determination behaviour is a type of motivation where the students lack significant intrinsic motivation that drives their urge to actively participate in the learning process. But under the influence of the environmental factors, the quality of determination-behaviour increases gradually from no-motivation to extrinsic form of motivation to intrinsic form of motivation. Such influence of intrinsic form of motivation is visualized via students actively participating in the tutorial or the learning process (Feri, Soemantri & Jusuf, 2016). Thus it can be said that at the initiation of the learning process under the educational setup, the students are motivated because of the external factors (extrinsic form of motivation like pressure from parents or teachers or rewards). However, as the time lapse, they gradually become involved within the process of education this may be due to the self generation of interest (autonomous), pleasure or physiological satisfaction (Feri, Soemantri & Jusuf, 2016). However, offering extrinsic rewards to students for behaviour that is motivated intrinsically undermines intrinsic motivation as they generate less interest in it. Here at the initial level, the intrinsically motivated behaviour is manipulated via external rewards or recognition, which undermines their autonomy (Ryan & Deci, 2017). However, intrinsic motivation is important. According to Leeknicht et al. (2017), this transformation of extrinsic motivation into intrinsic motivation is greatly influenced by the social context like supportive teaching. This supportive teaching in terms leads to the development of autonomous motivation promoting student to perform better.
Feri, R., Soemantri, D., & Jusuf, A. (2016). The relationship between autonomous motivation and autonomy support in medical students’ academic achievement. International journal of medical education, 7, 417.
Leeknicht, M.J.M., Wijnia, L., Loyens, S.M.M. &Rikers, R.M.J.P. (2017), Need-supportive teaching in higher education: Configurations of autonomy support, structure, and involvement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 68 pp.134-12
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary educational psychology, 25(1), 54-67.
Ryan, RM & Deci, EL (2017). Self-determination theory. Basic psychological needs in motivation, development and wellness. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Revue québécoise de psychologie, 38(3), 231-234.
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